TRAGEDY OF THE COMMON


garrett_hardin.gif Garreth Harding wrote this well quoted essay in 1968 which argued that the Commons inevitably leads to the abuse of common resources.

"The tragedy of the commons is a type of social trap that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. The term derives originally from a parable published by William Forster Lloyd in his 1833 book on population. It was then popularized and extended by Garrett Hardin in his 1968 Science essay "The Tragedy of the Commons".[1] However, the theory itself is as old as Aristotle who said: "That which is common to the greatest number has the least care bestowed upon it".

"Hardin explains his “Tragedy of the Commons in the following way. “Picture a pasture open to all. It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons.
“As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain. The rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to pursue is to add another animal to his herd. And another….
“But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Therein is the tragedy.
“Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit — in a world that is limited. Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons.
“The individual benefits as an individual from his ability to deny the truth even though society as a whole, of which he is a part, suffers. Education can counteract the natural tendency to do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of generations requires that the basis for this knowledge be constantly refreshed.
In 1968 Hardin was able to articulate the following example, one that we face today. Our “National Parks present another instance of the working out of the tragedy of the commons. At present, they are open to all, without limit” but “the parks themselves are limited in extent whereas population seems to grow without limit. The values that visitors seek in the parks are steadily eroded. Plainly, we must soon cease to treat the parks as commons or they will be of no value to anyone.”

Taken from http://p2pfoundation.net/Tragedy_of_the_Commons

We will try out a simulation in class and discuss this observation by Garreth Harding.


OVERFISHING


We will take a stroll down to the Arts room to have a look at the Sec 4 students' Arts Elective Programme's final project on marine lives.
These are your seniors' interpretation of how they feel about this issue.

strained_foodchain.jpg

There good online seafood guides which will help you to understand better.
Check out the following: