The main topics that will be tested is Ecology & Evolution.
In the MCQ section, a small section of the questions will include topics from Respiration & Photosynthesis.

Respiration and Photosynthesis

Refer to learner outcomes in Moodle.


Describe the energy flow in ecosystems using trophic levels, and distinguish between producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, detritivores and decomposers.
Describe the efficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels, and explain the small biomass and low numbers of organisms at higher trophic levels. Explain what happens to the energy that is not transferred.(Biozone pages 300 – 306).
With reference to the nature and function of trophic relationships, explain the term bioaccumulation. (387-388)
Able to relate how autotrophs, heterotrophs, biotic factors and abiotic factors are inter-connected to one another through energy transference and material exchange in an ecosystem. (Biozone pages 285 – 288).
Describe the basis of species interactions and symbiotic relationships, and their influences on population changes, (Biozone pages 294 – 295, 323 – 330) i.e.,
- predator-prey and producer-consumer relationships.
- symbiotic relationships: commensalism, mutualism and parasitism.
- Inter-species and intra-species competition.
Explain the role of defense mechanisms in predation and competition, e.g., mimicry, protective coloration, toxins, behaviour.
Understand how sampling techniques such as mark and recapture method and quadrat sampling can be used to determine population size, diversity of organisms found in an area, and their distribution. (Biozone pages 356 – 364).

Man’s impact on the environment

Discuss the causes and effects of the human impact eg causes: monoculture, deforestation, use of artificial fertilizers- effects: air pollution, global warming, eutrophication, threats to biodiversity.
Explain what is Tragedy of the Commons and think of ways of preventing this from happening.
Discuss the importance of sustainable development.
Discuss the moral obligations of man in conservation and environmental protection
Develop an awareness of personal lifestyle impact on the environment.
Adopt a stand towards sustainability and conservation and be able to hold discussions using specific examples to justify their claims.


Give a precise definition of the term evolution, explaining how evolution is a feature of populations and not of individuals.
Explain natural selection as the major mechanism of biological evolution by selectively changing genetic variation through differential survival and reproduction.
The mechanisms in Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection which brings about change in population over time
  • The tendency of population to overproduce
  • The fact that overproduction leads to competition and constancy in numbers
  • The fact that members of a species show variation
  • The differential survival and reproduction of individuals with favorable, heritable variations
  • Accumulation of variation and changes in environment over time results in evolution of species
  • New species, better adapted to the new environment evolve and can no longer reproduce with the earlier species
Understand the term fitness and explain how evolution, through adaptation, equips species for survival.
Recognize structural and physiological adaptations of organisms to their environment.
Adaptive radiation occurs when a single primitive form of a species develops into a range of advanced forms, each of which is adapted to particular environmental conditions. Adaptive radiation seen in the beaks of the finches in the Galapagos Island is an example.
Explain that variability in a species results from heritable mutations and that some mutations may have selective advantage(s)
Compare Lamarckian and Darwinian explanations of evolutionary change
Explain speciation and the conditions required for this process. Discuss speciation in terms of migration, geographical or ecological isolation, leading to reproductive or genetic isolation of gene pools.
Contrast allopatric and sympatric speciation, identifying the situations in which each is most likely to occur.